The Forum on Internet Freedom in Africa
(FIFAfrica) is a landmark event that convenes various stakeholders from the
internet freedom, governance and online rights arenas in Africa and beyond to
deliberate on gaps, issues and opportunities for advancing privacy, access to
information, freedom of expression, non-discrimination and the free flow of
information online on the continent.
The Forum responds to rising challenges to the
enjoyment of internet freedom in various countries, including arrests and intimidation
of online users, internet disruptions, and a proliferation of laws and
regulations that undermine the potential of digital technology to drive
socio-economic and political development on the continent.
FIFA strives to put internet freedom on the agenda
of key actors including policy makers, regulators, human rights defenders, law
enforcement representatives, and the media, paving way for broader work on
advancing online rights in Africa and promoting the multi-stakeholder model for
The engagement at the Forum aims to reflect the current
trends and concerns in access and usage of the internet and related
technologies on the continent at any given point in time. As such, each year
has its theme based on the state of Internet Freedom in Africa at that point.
Governments have done a modest job at ensuring modern technology is applied to making the physical world a safer place. Laws which account for physical safety evolve relatively quickly and pressure companies to apply the latest safety standards to structures, transportation technologies and the like.
Newer technologies such as wearable tech monitor our blood pressure and heart rate, which helps detect early warning signs of a medical emergency. However, the possibility to sell patient health information gathered from wearable tech remains a grave concern amongst citizens. Do governments have the responsibility to address these invasions of privacy? Many citizens would agree they do.
Kenya’s traffic situation is dire with deaths due to road traffic crashes estimated between 3,000 to 13,000 each year. Based on 2017 stats of the National Transport & Safety Authority (NTSA), pedestrians are the most vulnerable groups representing 39% of fatalities. Another 22% of victims are passengers, 12% are drivers while casualties due to motorbikes reached 18%. The reasons for these are many including poor driving behavior such as speeding, breaking traffic rules including talking on mobile phones or driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Overloading vehicles, not wearing seatbelts, poorly maintained vehicles and bad surface roads contribute to the rise in road traffic accidents.
Driverless Cars Can Benefit Kenya
In his study of road accidents in Kenya, Odero concludes that 85% of road mishaps was caused by human errors. Collisions between vehicles and pedestrians were the worse. Utility vehicles and buses were involved in 62% of accidents that lead to injuries. Faulty or poorly-maintained vehicles were also to blame. The costs of these accidents are estimated at Sh300 billion or $2.9 billion a year according to the 2015 NTSA report.
The introduction of driverless cars can significantly reduce the rate of accidents in the country. But before these autonomous cars could be driven on Kenyan streets, extensive testing needs to be done. Moreover, once on the road, there are other factors that play before deployment can even be considered. One of these is the IT law.
Driverless cars are dependent on the development of autonomous driving technologies. The biggest issue that crops up once an autonomous vehicle is driven is: who is responsible for the car and its actions? Is it the owner of the vehicle, the manufacturer or the creator of the autonomous driving system?
Autonomous Vehicles Can Save Lives
Before we can tackle the question, let us look at how testing of AVs has evolved. Without a doubt, driverless cars are big business. That is why automakers and technology giants are scrambling to get a big piece of the action. The likes of Waymo, Uber, Tesla and Apple have invested heavily in developing autonomous vehicles that are ready for deployment on the road.
In an ideal world, these vehicles are safer. Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are fitted with 360 degree cameras that allow them to see from all angles. They can use LIDAR technology which is a detection system using laser enabling them to see better and further. AVs can plot their course based on real time information so they can also change their routes and adjust their speed. In short, they can see better than the human eye.
Safe Testing Is Critical
The Uber test vehicle that killed a pedestrian in March this year suggested that the technology is not fully developed. According to the police report, the Uber car failed to identify the victim as a pedestrian and did nothing to avoid hitting her. The human operator who was inside the AV was also apparently watching a video before the crash occurred. In another incident, a Tesla Model X SUV crashed into a road barrier and killed its driver. It was on auto pilot mode. These accidents tell us that more safe testing needs to be done before the technology can be considered roadworthy.
There is also no existing legal framework that puts people or entities liable for accidents and deaths that may occur due to failures of AVs. While some countries are in the process of putting laws and regulations in place before driverless vehicles are put in circulation, there are still many snags that need to be untangled. For now, safe road testing is a top priority along with legislation, local zoning and stringent testing requirements.
Implications for the Kenya’s Road and Traffic
Chaotic Kenyan roads are even more of a challenge for AV testing. Not only are there more humans on the road, there are also cyclists, motor bikers and even animals. Driverless cars will have to learn to navigate around so many obstacles. Perhaps, this is also where they might make the biggest difference as hectic cities are places where the most collisions happen claiming more lives.
There are many benefits of autonomous vehicles for humans and the environment. However, safe testing of their capability on roads should be further enhanced. In addition, regulatory measures and a legal framework must be in place before they circulate in traffic.
Dr. Isaac Rutenberg (CIPIT Director) and Ms. Jacquelene Mwangi (CIPIT Researcher) have co-authored a new peer-reviewed article titled: “Do patents and utility model certificates encourage innovation in Kenya?” recently published in Oxford’s Journal of Intellectual Property Law & Practice. A copy of the article is freely accessible for a limited period here. In the article, it is observed that traditional measure of innovation at the country level is the number of patents filed and granted. However it is argued that this may not be an appropriate method for measuring innovation in developing countries in Africa, particularly since many patent offices on the continent are ineffective or inactive. However an exception is Kenya, which has a patent office equipped with a corps of examiners and more than two decades of experience in substantively examining patent applications.
As readers of this blog may already know, on April 26th every year, the World Intellectual Property Day is celebrated with the purpose of “learning the role that intellectual property rights (patents, trademarks, industrial designs, copyright) play in encouraging innovation and creativity.” According to the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), this year’s focus is on exploring “how innovation is making our lives healthier, safer, and more comfortable, turning problems into progress.” In addition, the organisation highlighted the importance of looking at “how the intellectual property system supports innovation by attracting investment, rewarding creators, encouraging them to develop their ideas, and ensuring that their new knowledge is freely available so that tomorrow’s innovators can build on today’s new technology.”
The editors of Digital Kenya: An Entrepreneurial Revolution in the Making describe it as a ‘book of arguments and ideas’ and this blogger agrees with this analysis. Published in 2017 and originally published in 2016, a copy of the e-book is freely available under open access. The focus of the book is Kenya’s entrepreneurial revolution in the tech sector. Digital Kenya is authored and edited in a very interesting way; 14 key figures in the Kenya’s tech startup scene were interviewed (including Jay Larson, co-founder of the Tunapanda Institute discussed in a post here) and they provide a unique insight into the inner workings of the Kenyan tech scene and what it takes to be a digital entrepreneur, in addition the book was written by professors, contributors and scholars and edited by Bitange Ndemo and Tim Weiss.
The stronger the assumption that the future will function as today does, the greater the gravitational force of the status quo. Organizations set in their ways slow down and never strive for new horizons. They are doomed to wither- Piero Formica
In his article, Piero Formica outlines why innovators should study the rise and fall of the Venetian Empire. He describes the rise of a strong nation, complete with both geographical and technological advantage, which came to a startling fall because of its veil of complacency to established practices and preferences. I recommend all my readers to read the article here.